Monthly Archives: February 2019

How Do Protozoans Obtain Their Nutrition?

Nature encompasses alluring, enchanting organisms one can think. These creatures may range from smallest protozoans to largest mammals. All the creatures require food for getting energy. The method of capturing food differs in different group of taxa. The way in which the protozoans devour their prey is also magnificent. The mechanism of getting nutrition is also amazing. Nutrition is a process of taking food in and digesting it and assimilating it to obtain energy. The ways in which the protozoans obtain their nourishment also varies drastically. They represent almost every type of nutrition. They may be holozoic, holophytic, parasitic, coprozoic, mixotrophic, saprozoic.

1. Holozoic Nutrition

The majority of Protozoans nourish themselves in the manner as the higher organisms did. They are able to feed on various micro-organisms, rotifers, crustaceans, other protozoans etc. Such protozoans are termed as Holozoic. They may be carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous or scavangerous. Holozoic nutrtion is also termed as zootrophic nutrition. This type of nutrition involves three basic steps:

A. Food Capture and ingestion

The regular method of food intake is also termed as phagocytosis, which differs greatly in different classes of protozoa. The locomotory organelles play an important role in food capture and ingestion. Rhumbler has defined four methods in which the locomotory organelles participate in food capture and ingestion.

a. Circumvallation

This method is very common Amoeba. Here the prey is surrounded by the locomotory organelle termed as pseudopodia from all the sides without coming in direct contact with the prey and a cup is formed. The food cup is later on completed by forming a food vacuole enclosing the prey with large amount of water.

b. Circumfluence

This method is aided by the locomotory organelles termed as axopodia and reticulopodia for capturing an immobile prey. A food cup is formed by direct contact with the prey and cytoplasm flows around the prey for engulfing it.

c. Invagination

In this case, the prey is first killed by a toxin secreted by the pseudopodia and then it is enclosed in the form of a food vacuole along with cytoplasm.

d. Import

In this case, the passive prey like the filamentous alga is simply drawn into the body upon contact and ingested. The general body surface plays an important role in this process.

B. Digestion and Assimilation

Digestion is always intracellular. The food vacuole is surrounded by a film. Acids, alkalies and enzymes are poured over the food to ensure digestion. The reaction is first acidic then alkaline. The prey is killed in the acidic environment which lasts for 4-60 minutes. Digestion mostly occurs in the alkaline phase. The digestive enzymes are aided by the lysosomes. Protein splitting proteases and starch splitting amylases are of wide occurrence. The presence of fat splitting lipase is controversial.

C. Egestion

In naked forms like Amoeba, the undigested matter goes out from the hinder part of the body. In some ciliates egestion occurs through a permanent opening present at the posterior end of the body termed as cytopyge.

2. Holophytic Nutrition

This mode of nutrition is also termed as autotrophic nutrition. This is very common in chlorophyll bearing flagellates. These organisms carry out photosynthesis with the help of carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll. The oxygen is liberated and the left carbon is used for making food. The starch is stored in the form of amylum but in Euglena it is stored in the form of paramylum which is not colored with iodine. Certain protozoans house symbiotic green alga that carry out photosynthesis and provides food to them.

3. Saprozoic Nutrition

This mode of nutrition is also termed as osmotrophy. Here the flagellates that are in direct contact with the organic matter of the decomposed plants and animals obtain their nourishment. They obtain their food in the form of dissolved material.

4. Pinocytosis

This is also termed as cell drinking.It was first studied by Mast and Doyle in 1934 in Amoeba proteus. Pinocytotic channels are formed in the body for absorbing liquid food from the surrounding medium. This method helps the organism in getting higher molecular compounds from the surrounding medium.

5. Parasitic Nutrition

The Sporozoans are completely parasitic and obtain their nourishment by living as parasites in the body of other animals. They fall under two categories:

a. Commensals

They feed on the raw or digested material of the host in saprozoic manner. They are harmless endocommensals. E.g., Nyctotherus, Balantidium

b. Pathogenic

About 26 species of protozoa are known to be parasitic to humans. They are responsible for causing dreadful diseases like Sleeping sickness, Malaria etc.

6. Coprozoic Nutrition

Many free living Protozoans feed on the faecal matter of other animals and are termed as coprozoic. Eg., Cercomonas etc.

7. Mixotrophic Nutrition

Several Protozoans are able to get their nutrition in more than one way. Euglena gracilis is able to take nutrition both holophytically as well as saprozoically.

Whatever may be means of devouring food all leads to adaptation to colossal environment.

6 Negative Effects Of Eating Fast Food

1. Fast food has a very high energy density. About 65 percent higher than a typical diet and twice as high as recommended healthy diets which makes us eat more than we otherwise would. Energy density refers to the amount of calories an item of food contains in relation to its weight. Foods with a high energy density confuse the brain’s control systems for appetite, which are based solely on portion size.

2. British researchers from the Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Center and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine have determined that repeated eating at McDonald’s or KFC or Burger King, people are more likely to gain weight and become obese. This is because fast food not only contains many more calories than traditional food, but also is more likely to undermine normal appetite control systems.

3. By eating a Big Mac and fries, the body consumes almost twice as many calories as you would if you ate the same weight of pasta and salad. Fast Food restaurants feed the obesity epidemic by getting people to eat many more calories than they need through persistent advertising.

4. McDonald’s, KFC, and Burger King menu items using nutritional data from the fast food restaurants’ Web sites, found that when we eat high energy density foods, we don’t reduce the portion size so we get a lot more calories than we need. Our current society possesses a weak innate ability to recognize foods with a high energy density. Food intake is assessed by the size of the portion, yet a fast food meal contains many more calories than a similar sized portion of a healthy meal. The conclusion is we are all being fooled into eating too much food.

5. People get fat eating regular portion sizes, but since the food has a high energy density, people gain weight. In evolutionary terms, the human appetite was designed for low energy density foods. In other parts of the world where these foods are still the dietary staples, obesity is virtually non existent. Our bodies were never designed to cope with the high energy dense foods consumed in the West. That is a major reason why fast food in contributing to the major rise in obesity.

6. Another fact is that fast food may speed up people’s risk of clogged arteries that can lead to heart attacks. Researchers at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in San Francisco have demonstrated that a certain type of fat, called oxidized fat, can accelerate the buildup of plaque in arteries. And many types of fast food such as hamburgers, pizza and French fries are loaded with oxidized fat. The conclusion is fast food meals are high in saturated fat and low quality carbohydrates, white bread and lots of soda. Our bodies require fiber and more healthful types of fats. Fast food represents a dietary pattern that is the opposite of what is recommended for a healthy body.

Honey and Cinnamon for Weight Loss – How Can Honey and Cinnamon Help Weight Loss?

What are the honey and cinnamon weight loss secrets? How can they help you lose weight? The answers will interest you if you are looking for ways to lose fat naturally. Let’s start with the first ingredient, cinnamon.

The health benefits of cinnamon only caught the attention of science in recent years even though it has been used for cooking and medical purposes for thousand of years. It is rich in antioxidant and protects us against heart diseases. It also lowers the LDL cholesterol, relieves arthritis and controls blood glucose (sugar) and insulin levels.

But what is the cinnamon weight loss secret? The positive effect of cinnamon on blood glucose and insulin levels is also how it can help us lose weight. By regulating blood glucose and insulin levels, it prevents fat disposition.

How to maximize the cinnamon weight loss benefits? You can consume cinnamon supplements before meal or sprinkle cinnamon powder onto foods.

Here’s how you supercharge the cinnamon weight loss benefits: By adding honey.

But why honey? It is a natural sweetener with many health benefits. Similar to cinnamon, it is rich in antioxidant and contains a wide variety of vitamins and minerals making it a super healthy food.

But what is the link between honey and fat loss? Honey and cinnamon weight loss mechanism is somehow similar but not exactly. According to the Honey Hibernation Diet (HHD), fat loss is possible when you are sleeping. Consuming raw honey before bed time can speed up metabolism and burn fat.

Here’s what we found out:

Honey is considered an ideal food as it keeps the sugar level balanced. This comment is also supported by the Journal of Medicinal Food (April 2004) where they reported similar finding. Further to that, the release of the recovery hormones helps to burn fat. This happens when the liver is fueled with sufficient honey intake before bed.

Why? This is because the liver needs to deliver 10 grams of glucose per hour to different parts of the body. We understand from HHD that the fat loss secret of honey lies in the 1:1 ratio of fructose and glucose. When we consume this natural sweetener, the fructose goes to the liver and stores as glycogen. If the blood glucose level falls below the normal level, the liver releases glycogen to different parts of the body.

In addition, fructose activates an enzyme for the liver to take in more glucose, thus stabilizing the blood sugar level. Simply put, fructose regulates blood glucose level. See the similarity between honey and cinnamon weight loss mechanism? But it doesn’t stop there. Because honey is rich in amino acids and minerals, it draws on these to metabolize the cholesterol and fatty acid, thus impeding fat gain.

But what are the practical applications of honey and cinnamon for weight loss? We find that a glass of honey and cinnamon drink a day helps to get rid of fat.

Here’s the honey and cinnamon weight loss recipe:

1) Add 1/2 teaspoon of cinnamon powder to 8 ounces of boiling water and stir well.

2) Cover the mixture and allow it to cool to room temperature.

3) Add 1 teaspoon of honey to the mixture. Stir well and drink half of it before going to bed. Do not adding honey to a hot mixture or scope it with a metal teaspoon as it may destroy the enzymes and nutrients.

4) Cover the balance of the honey and cinnamon weight loss mixture and keep it in fridge overnight.

5) Drink the cold mixture the first thing in the morning before breakfast without heating it up.

Simple steps to create a honey and cinnamon weight loss mixture that tastes good!

We are confident that you know how honey and cinnamon can help fat loss now. But how effective is this honey and cinnamon for weight loss formula? The results are astonishing. Our research showed that this has proven to work well for most people. On the average, they were losing about 7 pounds per week. A dieter lost 34 pounds using this honey and cinnamon weight loss formula alone. Many were able to lose belly fat too.

Those who consume this honey and cinnamon weight loss drink daily also feel happier with an increased in energy levels and sex drive. Therefore, it is fair to say that the honey and cinnamon weight loss drink can also improves other aspects of your life.

That said, anyone serious about losing weight and staying lean should not rely on the honey and cinnamon weight loss formulation alone. Having the right fat loss mindset, good eating and exercise habits are important for sustainable and natural fat loss. This means tuning the mind to focus on eating fat burning foods and engaging in strength and interval trainings. But specifically how to tune your mindset and what kind of fat burning foods and trainings are effective?